Unit 5:  Properties and Phases of Matter

Phases of matter and gasses
Name the three phases of matter.
Solids, Liquids and gasses
The properties and applications of some common gasses.
Name Oxygen
Symbol O
Appearance transparent (gas), very pale blue (liquid)
Density 1.429 g/L
Melting point 54.36 K
Boiling point 90.20 K
Some Applications
Medicine (as oxygen therapy).  People who climb mountains or fly in airplanes sometimes have supplemental oxygen supplies.  Oxygen is used in welding (such as the oxyacetylene torch), and in the making of steel and methanol.  Liquid oxygen finds use as a classic oxidizer in rocket propulsion.
Name Nitrogen
Symbol N
Appearance Colourless
Density 1.251 g/L
Melting point 63.15 K
Boiling point 77.36 K
Some Applications
To preserve the freshness of packaged or bulk foods (by delaying rancidity and other forms of oxidative damage).

On top of liquid explosives for safety.

The production of electronic parts such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits.

Dried and pressurized, as a dielectric gas for high voltage equipment.

The manufacture of stainless steel.

Use in military aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard, see inerting system.

Filling automotive and aircraft tires due to its inertness and lack of moisture or oxidative qualities, as opposed to air, though this is not necessary for consumer automobiles.

Type of Chemistry Definition
Analytic chemistry Analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition, structure and function.
Organic chemistry It is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen.
Petrochemistry Studies the transformation of crude oil and natural gas into useful products and raw materials
Electrochemistry Studies the reactions which take place at the interface of an electronic conductor.
Mining chemistry The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth.
A description of each of the following process industry fields.
Biochemical products Biochemical engineering is the application of engineering principles to conceive, design, develop, operate, and/or use processes and products based on biological and biochemical phenomena.
Fertilisers Fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves.  Fertilizers can be organic (composed of organic matter, i.e. carbon based), or inorganic (containing simple, inorganic chemicals).
Electro winning Electro winning also called electro-refining or electroextraction, is the electro deposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution or liquefied.
Petroleum product Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.  Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics.
Polymers Polymers provide the potential for greatly reducing the weight and size of structures (bridges and automobiles) and commercial products (baseball bats, tennis racquets), thereby improving their performance and efficiency.
Particle Location Weight Charge
Proton Nucleus 1.0073 amu Positive
Neutron Nucleus 1.0087 amu Neutral
Electrons Electron Cloud 0.000549 amu Negative
Definition of each of the following.
Element An element is a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom, each atom of a given kind having the same properties.
Compound A compound is a type of matter composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions.
Mixture A mixture is a material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances.
Atom An atom consists of a nucleus with positively charged protons and neutrons (neutral) that are surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
Breakdown of the periodic table below
A Alkaline metals D Non-metals
B Earth alkaline metals E Halogens
C Transition metals F Noble gasses
The symbols and atomic numbers of the following elements
Atom Atomic number
H 1
Na 11
F 9
Ne 10
Cl 17
S 16
Ar 18
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